Review Buku Money - Yuval Noah Harari

Published: Sunday, 18 August 2019 Written by Dipidiff

 

Judul : Money

Penulis : Yuval Noah Harari

Jenis Buku : Non Fiction History - Economy

Penerbit : Vintage Publishing

Tahun Terbit : April 2018

Jumlah Halaman : 144 halaman

Dimensi Buku :  11.20 x 27.40 x 1.60 cm

Harga : Rp. 75.000*harga sewaktu-waktu dapat berubah

ISBN : 9781784874025

Paperback

Edisi Bahasa Inggris

Available at PERIPLUS BANDUNG Bookstore (ig @Periplus_setiabudhi, @Periplus_husein1 , @Periplus_husein2) dan

PERIPLUS YOGYA (ig @periplus-malioboro, @periplus_hartonomall, @periplus_bandara_adisucipto_periplusbas3)

 

 

Sekelumit Tentang Isi

‘Everyone always wants money because everyone else also always wants money, which means you can exchange money for whatever you want.’

Bagaimana uang diciptakan? Mengapa sekarang uang memiliki arti penting dalam kehidupan kita? Apakah uang membuat kita lebih bahagia atau tidak bahagia? Dan apa yang akan terjadi di masa depan? Dengan pemaparan yang detail dan wawasannya yang cemerlang, Yuval Noah Harari membawa pembaca ke dalam sejarah uang yang luar biasa, dari koin pertama hingga ekonomi abad ke-21, serta menunjukkan bagaimana kita semua berada di ambang revolusi, terlepas dari apakah kita suka atau tidak.

 

Seputar Fisik Buku dan Disainnya

 

Beberapa orang terkejut saat saya mem-posting buku ini pertama kali di instagram karena memang tidak begitu populer di Indonesia, jauh dibandingkan seri Sapiens. Jujur, saya pun tadinya tidak tahu ada buku seri vintage mini karya Yuval Noah Harari jika tidak direkomendasikan oleh Periplus Bandung untuk diulas. Sesuai dengan tipe bukunya yang 'vintage mini', disain cover buku ini menurut saya memang 'lampau' dan sederhana ya. Tapi vintage dimana-mana juga menarik, begitupun dengan disain buku ini. Sederhana dan mengena, ilustrasi bulat-bulat itu sempat membuat saya menduga-duga apa arti dari gambar tersebut. Itu pasti ilustrasi gambar koin. Buku ini juga mini, tipis hanya 155 halaman totalnya. Tanpa preface, tanpa ini-itu, benar-benar buku yang berisi 'konten'nya saja. Senangnya adalah, buku ini nyaman dibawa kemana-mana karena fisiknya yang kecil dan ringan.

 

Yang menarik dan atau disuka dari Buku ini

Mereka yang menyukai sejarah kemungkinan besar akan menyukai buku ini sebagaimana saya menyukai konten buku Money. Di bawah ini saya kutipkan bagian pertama isi buku, yang menurut saya langsung memberikan kesan akan adanya muatan yang banyak soal sejarah uang. Gaya pemaparan Yuval Noah Harari yang saya kenal lewat buku Sapiens - Homo Deus - 21st Lesson for 21st Century juga terasa di buku ini, luwes dan menarik as always.

The Scent of Money

In 1519 Hernan Cortes and his Conquistadors invaded Mexico, hitherto an isolated human world. The Axtecs, as the people who lived there called themselves, quickly noticed that the aliens showed an extraordinary interest in a certain yellow metal. In fact, they never seemed to stop talking about it. The natives were not unfamiliar with gold – it was pretty an easy to work, so they used it to make jewellery and statues, and they occasionally used gold dust as a medium of exchange. But when an Aztec wanted to buy something, he generally paid in cocoa beans or bolts of cloth. The Spanish obsession with gold thus seemed inexplicable. ....

Page 1

 

Set weights of precious metals eventually gave birth to coins. The first coins in history were struck around 640 BC by King Alyattes of Lydia, in western Anatolia. These coins had a standardised weight of gold or silver, and were imprinted with an identificaation mark. The mark testified to two things. First, it indicated how much precious mental the coin contained. Second, it identified the authority that issued the coin adn that guaranteed its contents. ...

Page 15

 

Di buku ini sesekali ada halaman khusus kutipan. Kalimat-kalimat pilihannya mengundang kita untuk merenungkan maknanya dan memancing keingintahuan.

Picture : halaman kutipan yang ada di buku

 

Awal mula bahasan buku ini adalah jaman dimana manusia masih menggunakan sistem barter dalam perdagangan. Jangan khawatir tidak bisa memahami penjelasannya, karena Harari adalah salah satu penulis yang mampu 'menyederhanakan' topik bahasannya sehingga bisa dipahami oleh banyak orang. Begitupun dengan buku Money ini, tak perlu khawatir dahi bakal berkerut, karena alih-alih bingung kita justru akan asyik tersesat dalam sejarah uang berikut intriknya.

In order to understand the limitations of barter, imagine that you own an apple orchard in the hill country that produces the crispest, sweetest apples in the entire province. You work so hard in your orchard that your shoes wear out. So you harness up your donkey cart and head to the market town down by the river. Your neighbour told you that a shoemaker on the south end of the marketplace made him a really sturdy pair of boots that’s lasted him through five seasons. You find the shoemaker’s shop and offer to barter some of your apples in exchange for the shoes you need.

The shoemaker hesitates. How many apples should he ask for in payment? Every day he encounters dozens of customers, a few of whom bring along sacks of apples, while others carry wheat, goats or cloth – all of varying quality. Still others offer their expertise in ...

Page 5

 

Sesuai ekspektasi, buku Harari selalu memaparkan fakta-fakta mencengangkan. Mungkin tidak terlalu mengejutkan buat mereka yang sudah banyak membaca buku-buku sejarah dan ekonomi, tapi untuk public saya yakin hal-hal seperti ini selalu menarik. Contohnya yang saya kutipkan di bawah ini. Uang, menurut Harari, adalah suatu hal yang sangat universal. Bahkan masa dimana Muslim dan umat Kristiani berperang atas nama keyakinan masing-masing, ternyata orang-orang Kristen di jaman tersebut menerima dengan senang hati mata uang muslim yang bertuliskan 'There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is Allah's messenger'. Sebaliknya muslim yang berjihad pun tak keberatan menerima taxes dalam bentuk koin 'berunsur' Yesus dan Bunda Maria.

The followers of Christ and the followers of Allah killed each other by the thousands, devastated fields and orchards, and turned properous cities into smouldering ruins – all for the greater glory of Christ or Allah.

...

These square coins made by the Christian conquerors were emblazoned with flowing Arabic script that declared: “There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is Allah’s messenger.’ Even the Catholic bishops of Melgueil and Agde issued these faithful copies of popular Muslim coins, and God-fearing Christians happily used them.

Tolerance flourished on the other side of the hill too. Muslim merchants in North Africa conducted business using Christian coins such as the Florentine florin, the Venetian ducat and the Neapolitan gigliato. Even Muslim rulers who called for jihad against the infidel Christians were glad to receive taxes in coins that invoked Christ and His Virgin Mother.

Page 2-3

 

dan rupanya ada masa pula dimana alat tukar tidak berupa koin tapi kerang dan bahkan rokok.

One Auschwitz survivor described the cigarette currency used in the camp; “We had our own currency, whose valued no one questioned: the cigarette. The price of every article was stated in cigarettes... In “normal” times, that is, when the candidates to the gas chambers were coming in at a regular pace, a loaf of bread cost twelve cigarettes; a 300-gram package of margarine, thirty; a watch eighty to 200; a litre of alcohol, 400 cigarettes!”

Page 8

 

Seringkali kalimat akhir yang ada di babnya singkat dan menyadarkan. Kadang di akhir bab juga ditutup dengan pertanyaan yang membuat kita terus berpikir dan mempertanyakan. Misalnya,

Because money can convert, store and transport wealth easily and cheaply, it made a vital contribution to the appearance of complex commercial networks and dynamic markets. Without money, commercial networks and markets would have been doomed to remain very limited in their size, complexity and dynamism.

Page 10

  

Yet can the economic pie grow indefinitely? Every pie requires raw materials and energy. Prophets of doom warn that sooner or later Homo sapiens will exhaust the raw materials and energy of planet Earth. And what will happen then?

Page 66

 

Pembuka babnya juga menarik, karena memberikan gambaran sekilas topik yang akan dibahas. Misalnya,

It is not easy to grasp the true role of economics in modern history. Whole volumes have been written about how money founded states and ruined them, opened new horizons and enslaved millions, moved the wheels of industry and drove hundreds of species into extinction. Yet to understand just a single world. The word is growth. For better or worse, in sickness and in health, the modern economy has been growing like a hormone-soused teenager. It eats up everything it can find and puts on inches faster than you can count.

...

Page 23

 

Isi buku ini sebagian besar berupa alinea-alinea. Tak ada gambar penyerta, dan ukuran huruf serta spasinya agak rapat. Mungkin akan sedikit melelahkan buat sebagian pembaca. Sesekali ada poin-poin seperti di bawah ini, tapi hanya satu-dua kali saja.

Money is based on two universal principles:

  1. Universal convertibility: with money as an alchemist, you can turn land into loyalty, justice into health, and violence into knowledge.
  2. Universal trust: with money as a go-between, any two people can cooperaate on any project.

Page 21

 

Beberapa teori atau peristiwa tertentu yang terkait tokoh populer diceritakan di buku ini. Semuanya tentu saja sejalan dengan topik money-economy yang sedang dibahas. Misalnya,

The belief in the growing pie eventually turned revolutionary. In 1776 the Scottish economist Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, probably the most important economics manifesto of all time. In the eight chapter of its first volume, Smith made the following novel argument: when a landlord, a weaver or a shoemaker has greater profits than he needs to maintain his own family, he uses the surplus to employ more assistants, in order to further increase his profits. The more profits he has, the more assistants he can employ. It follows...

Page 31

 

Thus Charles W. Elliot, president of Harvard from 1869 to 1909, wrote on 5 August 1917 in the New York Times that ‘democratic armies fight better than armies aristocratically organised and autocratically governed’ and that ‘the armies of nations in which the mass of the people determine legislation, elect their public servants, and settle questions of peace and war, fight better than the armies of an autocrat who rules by right of birth and by commission from the Almighty.’

...

Page 69

 

Nah ini dia bagian yang saya sukai, ketika sejarah dilatar-belakangi oleh uang, di antaranya awal mula kapitalisme dan penjelajahan Columbus. Rupanya ekspedisi Columbus berjalan berkat sistem kredit yang diberikan oleh Ratu Isabella. Begitupun dengan kisah Belanda.

Capitalism played a decisive role not only in the rise of modern science,  but also in the emergence of European imperialism. And it was European imperialism that created the capitalist credit system in the first place. ...

Page 38

 

Like a present-day start-up entrepreneur, Columbus did not give up. He pitched his idea to other potential investors in Italy, France, England, and again in Portugal. Each time he was rejected. He then tried his luck with Ferdinand and Isabella, rulers of newly united Spain. He took on some experienced lobbyists, and with their help he managed to convince Queen Isabella to invest. As every school-childs knows, Isabella hit the jackpot. Columbus’ discoveries enabled the Spaniards to conquer America, where they established gold and silver mines as well as sugar and tobacco plantations that enriched the Spanish kings, bankers and merchants beyond their wildest dreams.

The secret of Dutch success was credit. The Dutch burghers, who had little taste for combat on land, hired mercenary armies to fight the Spanish for them. The Dutch themselves meanwhile took to the sea in everlarger fleets.

...

Page 42

 

Bagian yang ini terasa personal, karena menceritakan VOC, masa dimana Indonesia dijajah oleh Belanda.

Page 40 famous Dutch joint-stock company, the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC for short, was chartered in 1602, just as the Dutch were throwing off Spanish rule and the boom of Spanish artillery could still be heard not far from Amsterdam’s ramparts. VOC used the money it raised from selling shares to build ships, send them to Asia, and bring back Chinese, Indian and Indonesian goods. It also financed military actions taken by compant ships against competitors and pirates. Eventually VOC money financed the conquest of Indonesia.

...

Page 47

 

Beberapa kisah menarik lainnya juga ada diceritakan di buku ini, misalnya kasus Missisipi Bubble, Opium War antara Cina dan Inggris, dan kasus terusan Canal Suez.

The Missisipi Bubble was one of history’s most spectacular financial crashes. The royal French financial system never recuperated fully from the blow. The way in which the Misissipi Company used its political clout to manipulate share prices and fuel by buying frenzy caused the public to lose faith in the French banking system and in the financial wisdom of the French king. Louis XV found it more and more difficult to raise credit. This become one of the chief reasons ...

Page 51

The most notorious example of how governments did the bidding of big money was the First Opium War, fought between Britain and China (1840-42). In the first half of the nineteenth century, the British East India Company and sundry British business people made fortunes by exporting drugs, particularly opium, to China. Millions of Chinese became addicts, delibilitating the country both economically and socially. ..

Page 53

Egypt, too, learned to respect the long arm of British capitalism. During the nineteenth century, French and British investors lent huge sums to the rules of Egypt, first in order to finance the Suez Canal project, and later to fund far less successful enterprises. Egyptian debt swelled, and European creditors increasingly meddled in Egyptian affairs. ...

Page 54

 

Pada akhirnya kita akan dibawa pada fenomena masa kini ketika algoritma komputer mulai masuk dan berperan dalam kehidupan manusia. Perekonomian perlahan berubah wajahnya dengan adanya kemajuan teknologi. Namun semua kecanggihan itu juga punya sisi negatifnya. Dan inilah yang menjadi fokus buku Money yang sebenarnya, yakni untuk menyadarkan kita akan berbagai probabiliti tersebut.

Stock-exchange traders are also in danger. Most financial trading today is already being managed by computer algorithms that can process in a second more data than a human can in a year, and can react to the data much faster than a human can blink. On 23 April 2013, Syrian hackers broke into Associated Press’s official Twitter account. At 13:07 they tweeted that the White House had been attacked and President Obama was hurt.

...

Page 77

 

Di titik ini kita akan menemukan pemaparan berbagai kemajuan kepintaran buatan (artificial intellegency). Harari membahas Robots and 3D Printers, fMRI Scanners, Mindojo Company, Watson AI, Mattersight Corporation, IBM's Deep Blue, WBM Watson, Google DeepMind, Google's AlphaGo, VITAL, EMI, Microsoft Band, Facebook, Uber, Waze, Cortana System, Google Now, Apple's Siri, Amazon, dan DNA Testing yang semuanya merupakan technology bonanza dengan segala kecanggihannya dan 'ancaman' tersembunyi dari rahasia algoritma. Banyak profesi yang ada saat ini akan hilang di masa depan karena digantikan oleh kecerdasan buatan.

When they enter the classroom, however, they may well discover that the algorithms have got there first. Companies such as Mindojo are developing interactive algorithms that will not only teach me maths, physics and history, but will simultaneously study me and get to know exactly who I am. Digital teachers will closely monitor every answer I give, ...

Page79

 

Now consider IBM’s famous Watson – an artificial intelligence system that won the Jeopardy! Television game show in 2011, beating human former champions. Watson is currently groomed to do more serious work, particularly in diagnosing diseases. An AI such as Watson has enormous potential advantages over human doctors. ...

Page 81

In recent decades developed countries underwent another revolution: as industrial jobs vanished the services sector expanded. In 2010 only 2 per cent of Americans worked in agriculture and 20 per cent worked in industry, while 78 per cent worked as teachers, doctors, webpage designers and so forth. When mindless algorithms are able to teach, diagnose and design better than humans, what will we do?

Page 86

Deep Blue was given a head start by its creators, who perprogrammed it not only with the basic rules of chess, but also with detailed instructions regarding chess strategies. A new generation of AI prefers machine learning to human advice. In February 2015 a program developed by Google DeepMind learned by itself how to play forty-nine classic Atari games, from Pac-Man to car racing. It then played most of them as well as or better than humans, sometimes coming up with strategies that never occur to human players. 

...

Page 88

 

Fokusnya ada di akhir buku, berupa pertanyaan besar yang harus dijawab sendiri oleh pembaca dengan menyimpulkan apa yang sudah dipaparkan penulis di sepanjang buku. Apa yang digambarkan Harari dengan kemajuan teknologi dan ekonomi di masa depan bukanlah sebuat ramalan, tapi sebuah kemungkinan. Tugas kita saat ini adalah membuat rencana pencegahan terjadinya hal-hal negatif yang mungkin terjadi tersebut dan melakukannya sesegera mungkin.

At the beginning of this chapter we identified several practical threats to liberalism. The first is that humans might become militarily and economically useless. This is just a possibility, of course, not a prophecy. This is just a possibility, of course, not a prophecy. Technical difficulties or political objections might slow down the algoritmic invasion of the job market. Alternatively, since much of the human mind is still..

Page 99

If scientific discoveries and technological developments split humankind into a mass of useless humans and a small elite of upgraded superhumans, or if authority shifts altogether away from human beighs into the hands of highly intelligent algorithms, then liberalism will collapse. What new religions or ideologies might fill the resulting vacuum and guide the subsequent evolution of our godlike descendants?

 

For more from Yuval Noah Harari (including notes to the extracts you’ve just read) see Sapiens and Homo Deus.

Page 133.

 

Money adalah buku yang berisi intisari dari buku Sapiens dan Homo Deus. Isi buku ini meski saling bertautan, tapi seolah bisa dipisah menjadi dua esay yang berbeda, yang satu bertopikkan uang serta ekonomi, dan satunya lagi tentang liberalisme dan kemajuan teknologi kecerdasan buatan. Dua topik ini memang dibahas di buku Sapiens dan Homo Deus. Bahkan sebenarnya bahasan AI lebih banyak di buku 21 Lessons for The 21st Century, tapi karena Money diterbitkan lebih dahulu daripada buku ketiga Harari tersebut maka tidak disinggung-singgung kaitan di antara keduanya. 

Fokus Harari di buku ini kurang lebih sama dengan Sapiens - Homo Deus - 21 Lessons, yakni dengan mengetahui kemungkinan-kemungkinan yang terjadi di masa depan, apa yang harus umat manusia lakukan sekarang dan kemudian, untuk mencegah sisi negatif imbas kemajuan teknologi

Klik di sini untuk baca “Review Buku Sapiens – Yuval Noah Harari”

Klik di sini untuk baca “Review Buku Homo Deus – Yuval Noah Harari”

Klik di sini untuk baca “Review Buku 21st Lessons for The 21 Century – Yuval Noah Harari”

 

Siapa Yuval Noah Harari

Yuval Noah Harari lahir di Israel pada tahun 1976 dan tumbuh dalam keluarga Yahudi sekuler. Dia datang ke Inggris pada usia dua puluhan di mana dia belajar di Oxford sebelum kembali ke Israel di mana dia saat ini menjadi dosen di Universitas Ibrani Yerusalem, khususnya di topik the Middle Ages and World History.

Sejak usia muda ia disibukkan oleh pertanyaan besar dalam hidup: adakah keadilan dalam sejarah, apakah kekuasaan menjamin hadirnya kebahagiaan, dan bagaimana - jika ada - membuat manusia berbeda dari hewan lain? Ia menulis buku Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind dalam upayanya untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini dan sejak itu buku tersebut telah menjadi fenomena internasional yang menarik banyak penggemar, dari Bill Gates hingga Barrack Obama, dari Chris Evans hingga Jarvis Cocker. Buku lanjutannya, Homo Deus: A History History of Tomorrow membahas pertanyaan tentang masa depan umat manusia dan telah menjadi sensasi internasional yang serupa.

Buku Money mendapatkan rating 4.10 di Goodreads

 

Rekomendasi

Buku ini saya rekomendasikan kepada pembaca yang menyukai buku-buku Harari, atau ingin tahu seperti apa bahasan yang ada di buku Sapiens dan Homo Deus (karena Money merupakan intisari kedua buku tersebut). Topik buku ini adalah sejarah uang yang memainkan peran besar dalam kehidupan manusia, mulai dari jaman barter, imperialisme, kolonialisme, lalu pasar bebas, liberalisme, hingga masa kini dimana ekonomi dan politik menjadi dua kubu yang saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain, ditutup dengan bahasan kemajuan teknologi (algoritma komputer, AI) dan tantangan kita di masa depan dalam ancaman (kemungkinan) punahnya kemanusiaan akibat perkembangan jaman. Tidak ada gambar pelengkap, ada halaman khusus kutipan. Gaya bahasa luwes, fakta yang disampaikan menarik, sistematis, mudah dipahami. Ringkas tapi berbobot.

My Rating : 4.1/5

 

 

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